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  • Milestones in the History of Blood donation

     

    MILESTONES IN THE HISTORY OF BLOOD DONATION

     

      1628

    British physician William  Harvey discovers the circulation of blood. The first known blood transfusion is attempted soon afterward.

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      1658

    Microscopist Jan Swammerdam observes and describes red blood cells.

      1665

    The first recorded successful blood transfusion occurs in England: Physician Richard Lower keeps dog alive by transfusing blood from other dogs.

      1667

    Jean-Baptiste Denis in France and Richard Lower and Edmund King in England separately report successful transfusions from sheep to humans.

      1818

    British obstetrician James Blundell performs the first successful transfusion of human blood to a patient for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage.

      1873-1880

    U.S. physicians attempt transfusing milk from cows, goats and humans.

      1884

    Saline infusion replaces milk as a “blood substitute” due to the increased frequency of adverse reactions to milk.

      1901

    Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian physician, discovers the first three human blood groups.

      1907

    - Ludvig Hektoen suggests that the safety of transfusion might be improved by cross-matching blood between donors and patients to exclude incompatible mixtures.
    - Reuben Ottenberg performs the first blood transfusion using blood typing and cross-matching.

      1914

    Long-term anticoagulants, among them sodium citrate, are developed, allowing longer pre servation of blood.

      1939-1940

    The Rh blood group system is discovered by Karl Landsteiner, Alexander Wiener, Philip Levine and R.E. Stetson.

      1940

    - The U.S. government establishes a national blood collection program.
    - Edwin Cohn develops cold ethanol fractionation, the process of breaking down plasma into components and products. Albumin, gamma globulin and fibrinogen are isolated and become available for clinical use.
    - John Elliott develops the first blood container, a vacuum bottle extensively used.
    - Early blood processing program for relief of English war victims, called Plasma for Britain, begins under direction of Charles R. Drew.

      1944

    Dried plasma becomes a vital element in the treatment of wounded soldiers during World War II.

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      1945

    Coombs, Mourant and Race describe the use of anti-human globulin to identify incomplete antibodies. The process became known as the Coombs test, also known as the antiglobulin test.

      1947

    ABO blood-typing and syphilis testing is performed on each unit of blood.

      1961

    Platelet concentrates are recognized for reducing the mortality from hemorrhage in cancer patients.

      1964

    Plasmapheresis is introduced as a means of collecting plasma for fractionation.

     
      1969

    S. Murphy and F. Gardner demonstrate the feasibility of storing platelets at room temperature, revolutionizing platelet transfusion therapy.

     
      1971

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) testing of donated blood begins.

     
      1972 Apheresis is used to extract one cellular component, returning the rest of the blood to the donor.  
      1983

    Additive solutions extend shelf life of red blood cells to 42 days.

     
      1992

    Testing of donor blood for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies (anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2) is implemented.

     
      2002- present Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV)  
Dr Tiju Thomas  |  2015-08-14 12:38:16 |  174 Views